Health Benefits of ENZOGENOL®
ENZOGENOL® – Mechanisms Of Action
Listed below are the known health benfits of ENZOGENOL® with the possible mechanisms of action by which they are likely to occur.
References are linked to online publication databases.
|Health Benefit||Mechanisms of Action|
|Reduction of systemetic oxidation levels in the body (HB) - as demonstrated by clinical findings of reduced protein and DNA oxidation with 6 and 12 weeks of consuming Enzogenol (Senthilmohan et al 2003, Young et al 2006)||
Antioxidant / free radical scavenging activities - as demontrated by free radical scavenging essays (Wood et al 2002, Jerez et al 2007)
Increased expression of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. Proanthocyanidins (OPCs), the major flavonoid in Enzogenol, have been shown to activate the Nrf-2 signaling pathway leading to increased expression of glutathione-S-transferase, heme oxygenase 1 and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (Rodrigues-Ramiro et al 2012, Lu J et al 2018, Li T et al 2019).
|Improved cognition / cognitive functioning – as demonstrated by clinical findings of:
||Antioxidant action – see above.
Decline in brain function is a consequence of inflammatory and oxidative processes in the brain. Reduction in oxidation and reduced neuro-inflammation may therefore improve and prevent loss of brain function.
Beyond the antioxidant action, flavonoids can act directly on neurons and glia cells via the interaction with major signal transduction cascades, as well as indirectly via interaction with the blood-brain barrier and cerebral vasculature (Jaeger et al 2018).
Improvements of cerebral blood flow have been shown for Enzogenol (Ghosh and Mukherjee 2019. Natural Medicines. CRC Press: Frevel 2019 – Chapter 15).
Activation of NRF-2 signaling , as shown for proanthocyanidins, has neuroprotective effects (Tavakkoli et al 2019).
Other flavonoid components in Enzogenol that have shown neuroprotective effects include taxifolin (dihydroquercetin) and quercetin. Quercetin can act via NRF2, PON2 and SIRT1 (Costa et al 2016). Taxifolin can also act via the NRF2-pathway (Liang et al 2013, Turovskaya et al 2019).
Other influences on neuronal signal transduction and neuro-inflammation are likely for the polyphenol components present in Enzogenol. Procyanidin dimers B-1, B-3 and B-6,
trimer C-2, and piceatannol are all candidates for such effects
Improved eye health - as demonstrated by clinical finding of:
|Antioxidant action – see above.
Oxidative stress, the imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants, can leads to ocular damage, loss of vision acuity and may be highly involved in ocular aging processes (Cejka et al 2015). Lower systemic oxidation levels in the body as shown in people taking Enzogenol may help to slow age-related deterioration of vision.
|Improved glucose tolerance – as demonstrated by clinical findings of:
||Increased expression of enzymes involved in glucose metabolism and homeostasis leading to faster glucose clearance.
In a mouse model of type-2-diabetes oral feeding of Enzogenol resulted in a number of significant improvements of diabetic markers including reduction in HbA1c, insulin and glucagon levels, and increase in hepatic AMPK activity and increased expression of proteins related to glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism, such as glucokinase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α and long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, glycogen synthase, and simultaneous reduction of glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Bang et al 2014).
Increased expression of these enzymes may lead to faster glucose clearance from the blood and thereby improve glucose tolerance.
|Inhibition of intestinal glucose transporters SGLT1 and GLUT2 by proanthocyanidins and inhibition of digestive enzymes leading to slower absorption of glucose into the blood stream.
Proanthocyanidins have been shown to inhibit glucose transporters and digestive enzymes α-amylase and α-glucosidase (Cires et al 2017, Salvado et al 2015, Lee et al 2007).